Standard springs, standardized metal springs and standardized springs

Standard springs are pre-engineered spring components used in a variety of applications. They are manufactured in large quantities and come in a variety of sizes and styles. Standard springs are typically manufactured to generally accepted norms and standards to ensure easy integration and interchangeability.
Standard springs can come in a variety of shapes and designs, including extension springs, compression springs, and torsion springs. They are made of spring steel wire or other suitable materials and can be used in areas such as automotive, electronics, household appliances, mechanical engineering, medical technology and many other applications.
The advantage of standard springs is that they offer a cost-effective solution as they are produced in large quantities and are widely available. They are usually available directly from stock or through specialized dealers. The standardization also enables easy selection and integration into designs and systems, since the dimensions and properties of the springs are well documented.

It is important to note that while standard springs cover a wide range of applications, they cannot always meet the specific needs of a particular project. In such cases, custom spring solutions may be required to meet specific loading requirements, space constraints, or other special requirements.

The most common standard springs, their properties, design, calculation, production, areas of application and special features are:


Compression spring - cylindrical shape - spring ends open

Compression springs:
Compression springs are the most common type of standard spring. Under load, they compress in the direction of the spring axis and generate an opposing compressive force that is proportional to the spring deflection. Compression springs are used in many applications such as automobiles, household appliances, industrial machinery and electronic products. They are often made of high-strength spring steel and can be made in various shapes, such as cylindrical, barrel-shaped, conical, etc.

Extension springs:
Tension springs are stretched under tensile load and generate an opposing tensile force that is proportional to the spring deflection. They find application in areas such as doors, window mechanisms, spring compressors and toys. Tension springs are made of high-strength spring steel and can be designed in various shapes, such as cylindrical, barrel-shaped, conical, etc.


Pension spring with hook eyelet

Thigh springs:
Torsion springs, torsion springs or torsion springs are loaded by rotation around their spring body axis. They generate torques or can absorb torques that are proportional to the deformation. Torsion springs are used in areas such as door locks, folding mechanisms and industrial machinery. Torsion springs are made from high-strength spring steel


Leg spring with tangential legs and spring ends as a hook eyelet and angled hook

Properties and calculation:
Various factors must be taken into account when selecting and calculating standard springs, including load, spring stiffness, the spring constant and life requirements. The strength calculation of the spring steel is decisive for the design of a standard spring. The spring wire is subjected to torsion in compression springs and tension springs. With torsion springs, the spring wire is subjected to bending loads. When calculating the strength of the spring wire, the underlying physical and mechanical relationships are taken into account accordingly.

Standard springs are usually manufactured using various processes such as wire bending or winding on correspondingly specialized CNC winding machines.

Areas of application and special features:
Standard springs are found in a wide range of industries and applications including automotive, electronics, engineering, medical, construction and aerospace. They are characterized by their versatility, high resilience, long service life and easy integration into different systems.

The most common standard springs, such as compression springs, extension springs and torsion springs, provide a reliable and efficient way to generate elastic forces and movements. Due to their wide range of applications, different designs and materials, they meet the requirements in numerous industries and technical applications. Proper selection, calculation and manufacture of standard springs are critical to ensure optimal performance and longevity.

In addition to the widely used compression springs, tension springs and torsion springs, there are a large number of other standard springs which are used in various areas due to their specific properties and designs.

Double torsion springs:
Double torsion springs, also known as torsion springs with a symmetrical structure, are characterized by their unique construction. They consist of two legs arranged in parallel, which are connected to one another by a common central plane. These springs offer increased resilience and improved stability, making them particularly suitable for applications with high spring force requirements, such as in valves, switches or tools.

Formed springs or stamped parts:
Molded springs are versatile spring elements that are characterized by their complex shape. They are manufactured from flat materials by forming or stamping and have various geometric contours, such as rectangles, circles or special profile shapes. Shaped springs offer great flexibility in terms of design and adaptability to specific requirements. They are widely used in fields such as electronics, automotive and home appliances.

Bending wire parts:
Wire bending parts are spring elements that are manufactured by bending wire into various shapes and contours. They are characterized by their flexibility, resilience and formability. Bent wire parts are widely used in areas such as medical technology, electronics and the automotive industry, where they are used, for example, as retaining clips, Brackets or mounting elements are used.

Contact springs:
Contact springs are special spring elements used for electrical contact in switches, connectors and other electronic devices. They ensure a reliable electrical connection and are made of highly conductive materials such as beryllium copper or stainless steel. Contact springs offer a high contact force, low contact resistance and a long service life.

Spring pin:
Spring pins are spring-loaded fasteners used in a variety of applications to secure or hold components in place. There are simple cotter pins, with a spring that creates an axially directed force, and double cotter pins, which can be loaded both axially and radially. They are used in areas such as automotive, mechanical engineering and electrical engineering.

Bore Rings:
Bore rings, also known as shaft rings or retaining rings, are spring elements that are placed in bores to secure components or to limit axial movements. Manufactured from high strength spring steel, they feature an annular construction that is inserted into the bore. Bore rings are used in various industries such as automotive, mechanical engineering and aerospace.

Securing clips:
Securing clips are spring elements designed to protect components from unintentional loosening or slipping. They are often used in applications such as housing closures, fasteners or connectors. Securing clips provide a secure and reliable attachment while allowing for easy assembly and disassembly.

Worm feathers:
Worm springs are special springs that are used, for example, in shaft seals. They consist of a spiral metal spring that exerts pressure on the sealing lip. This achieves a reliable seal between a rotating shaft and a stationary housing. Worm springs are used in engines, transmissions, pumps and compressors. They are durable and efficient.

Conical springs:
Tapered springs, also known as cone springs, are conical in shape with a larger diameter at one end and a smaller diameter at the other end. These springs offer a progressive spring rate curve, where the spring rate varies with increasing compression or extension. Conical springs are used in areas such as chassis, shock absorbers or spring struts where stepless adjustment of the spring force is required.

Barrel springs:
Barrel springs, also known as cylinder springs, have a barrel-shaped geometry with a larger diameter in the middle and smaller diameters at the ends.

Cable springs:
Cable springs are known as boat springs or tension springs.

Disc springs:
Disc springs are disc-shaped springs that can generate a large spring force in a small space thanks to their convex shape. Disc springs are used in various applications to generate or absorb axial forces. They are used in valves, clutches, shock absorbers, brakes and many other mechanical systems. By selecting different materials and dimensions, disc springs can be adapted to the specific requirements of an application.

The variety of standard springs goes beyond compression springs, tension springs and torsion springs. Double torsion springs, shaped springs, bent wire parts, contact springs, spring plugs, bore rings, safety clips, garter springs, conical springs, Barrel springs and cable springs offer a wide range of properties and possible uses. From the electronics industry through mechanical engineering to the automotive industry, these springs are used in numerous applications, where they develop their specific advantages and functions. Knowledge of these different standard springs allows technicians and engineers to make targeted selection and application to achieve optimal performance and reliability to ensure in their constructions.

Your contact for inquiries, advice and projects:

Christian Neumann
Phone: 0212 / 3824187-3