Cylindrical Compression Springs - compression load coiled metal spring

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Compression spring - cylindrical shape - spring ends open

Cylindrical compression springs are widely used and versatile components in the mechanical and spring engineering world.
The structure of a cylindrical compression spring consists of a cylindrical wire wound in regular coils around a central axis.

They are characterized by their cylindrical shape and their ability to generate a compressive force, or to generate an opposing force when compressed.
Cylindrical compression springs are characterized by different spring ends, such as open, closed and ground ends.

Differences to the mainspring:
The key difference between cylindrical compression springs and extension springs is how they respond to loading. While compression springs work under compression and can absorb or generate a compressive force, extension springs are stretched under tensile load and generate a tensile force. This distinction is decisive for the respective area of application and the requirements of the application. When manufactured, the compression spring has a coil spacing a(mm) >= 0. While the tension spring has no coil spacing in the as-manufactured state a(mm) = 0.

There are different types of cylindrical compression springs to choose from based on application needs:

Cylindrical compression springs:
This is the simplest form of a cylindrical compression spring. Cylindrical compression springs have a uniform winding and generate a constant compressive force along its spring body longitudinal axis. They are used in a variety of applications, such as in industrial machinery, automobiles, household appliances and electronic products.
Cone springs:
Cone springs are tapered in shape and produce a progressive compressive force that increases as compression increases. This type of compression spring is often used in vehicles to absorb shock and vibration and to ensure smooth suspension.
Barrel springs:
Its barrel-shaped design enables it to take up and absorb axial pressure forces. The windings of the spring ensure an even distribution of the pressure load, giving the spring high rigidity and has an effective spring action. The barrel spring is particularly suitable for applications that require reliable pressure relief and a controlled restoring force arrives. Examples of the use of barrel springs as compression springs can be found in the automotive industry, in mechanical engineering and in medical technology.

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Compression spring - cone shape - spring ends applied

Cylindrical compression springs offer some special features that make them particularly suitable for certain applications:

High spring force:
Cylindrical compression springs can generate high spring force, making them ideal for applications where a strong restoring force is required, such as in industrial clamps or jigs.
Long suspension travel:
Cylindrical compression springs are capable of bridging large deflections, making them ideal for applications where deflection occurs with an increase in force or power reduction are to be achieved.
Space-saving design:
Due to their cylindrical shape, compression springs can generate a large spring force in the smallest of spaces. This is particularly advantageous in applications where the available space is limited.

Cylindrical compression springs can have different types of spring ends to meet the specific needs of an application:

Open ends:
Compression springs with open ends allow for easy assembly and attachment. They are often used when the spring needs to be clipped onto a bolt or shaft.
Closed ends:
Closed end compression springs have flat, closed ends. They provide an even bearing surface and are commonly used in applications where precise pressure distribution is required.
Beveled ends:
Ground ends provide improved surface quality and reduce the risk of friction or wear in an application. They are particularly useful in precision instruments or medical devices.

Cylindrical compression springs are important components in a variety of mechanical systems. Their ability to generate a compressive or reaction force makes them ideal for applications where a restoring force or compressive load is required. By selecting the right type of compression spring and tailoring the spring ends to the application needs, technicians and engineers can ensure optimal performance and reliability.

Compression springs are used in a large number of areas and applications:

Compression springs are used in vehicles for various applications such as chassis components, brakes, clutches and steering mechanisms.
Mechanical Engineering:
Compression springs are used in machines and devices to exert compressive or tensioning forces, e.g. in presses, stamping machines, injection molding machines and robots.
In the electronics industry, compression springs are used in switches, contacts, battery contacts and plug connections.
Medical Technology:
Compression springs are used in medical devices such as implants, syringes, medical instruments and medical diagnostic devices.
In the construction industry, compression springs are used in doors, windows, roller shutters and elevators to ensure smooth operation.
Household appliances:
Compression springs are used in various household appliances such as washing machines, dishwashers, microwave ovens and irons.
Toys and sports equipment:
Compression springs are used in toys, sports equipment such as dumbbells, gym equipment and shuttlecocks.
These are just a few examples of the diverse areas of application for compression springs. They are used in a wide range due to their robust construction, reliability and customizable features used in applications where a controlled compressive force is required.


Compression spring - spring ends applied-ground

There are several important aspects to consider when designing cylindrical compression springs, to ensure optimal spring performance and reliability.

Some important design aspects should be considered with cylindrical compression springs:

Buckling of a compression spring can occur when the spring length is too large in relation to the diameter. It is important to minimize the risk of buckling by using appropriate reinforcements such as sleeves and mandrels, or by making the spring ends closed.
Friction to conversion parts:
Friction between the compression spring and adjacent components can affect the performance of the spring. Careful design of the spring ends and the use of suitable materials and surface coatings can help reduce friction and ensure efficient transmission of spring forces.
Load on Block:
In a compression spring, the maximum load occurs when all coils are in contact and the spring is loaded to block. It is important to design the spring so that it can safely carry this block load without plastic deformation or failure.
Fatigue Strength:
The fatigue life of a compression spring is its ability to withstand repeated stress without showing signs of fatigue. When designing, care should be taken to ensure that the spring has the required fatigue strength for the given application on the load cycles and the environmental impact.
Vibrational behavior:
Compression springs can be exposed to vibrations in applications with dynamic loads. It is important to know the vibration behavior of the spring to analyze and, if necessary, to take suitable measures for damping or avoiding resonance in order to minimize vibration problems.
Relaxation refers to the loss of tension or spring force in a metal spring over time at constant strain. This effect occurs due to material fatigue and the adaptation of the metal spring material to the load. At elevated temperatures, the relaxation properties of a spring material can increase, which can lead to a faster loss of tension and spring force. This can be a concern, especially with metal springs that work at high temperatures. The origin of relaxation lies in the material structure and the bonding mechanisms at the atomic level.
Creep refers to the slow and permanent deformation of a spring material under constant load. As temperature increases, a material's tendency to creep increases, which can lead to accelerated deformation and possible loss of resilience. This effect is particularly relevant when spring materials are exposed to high temperatures over a long period of time. It occurs due to the diffusion of atoms in the material, as a result of which the bonds gradually change their position. Creep is favored by high temperatures because atomic mobility increases at elevated temperature.
Hysteresis occurs in spring materials during the loading and unloading phases. It describes the difference in spring force between applying a load and removing that load. At higher temperatures, the elasticity of the spring material can change, which can lead to a change in the hysteresis curve. This can cause the spring force to shift and potentially affect the ability to precisely control the force. It arises due to energy dissipation in the material, for example due to elastic deformation and friction effects. Hysteresis can also be caused by internal stresses and microstructural changes in the material.

By considering these aspects when designing metal springs, optimal performance, durability and reliability can be achieved be guaranteed. It is important to consider the specific requirements of the application, norms and standards, as well as best design practices, to ensure that the springs meet the necessary requirements.


Compression spring - cone-shaped

Relaxation, creep and hysteresis are important effects that can occur in spring materials. These effects can be affected by a variety of factors, including operating temperature.

The key differences between these effects lie in their underlying cause and specific usage implications:
Relaxation refers to the loss of tension or springiness over time and can lead to a gradual reduction in strength.
Creep refers to the slow and permanent deformation of a spring material under constant load, resulting in a possible decrease in spring length and spring force.
Hysteresis describes the difference in spring force between loading and unloading and can affect the precise control of spring force.

At elevated temperature, these effects (relaxation, creep, hysteresis) tend to increase because the thermal conditions affect the properties of the spring material. It is therefore important when selecting spring materials to consider the temperature dependent properties and where appropriate Take measures to minimize the effects of relaxation, creep and hysteresis.

To minimize the effects of relaxation, creep and hysteresis in spring materials, there are several ways that can be applied:

Material selection:
Choosing the right spring material is crucial to achieve the desired properties. There are special spring materials that have a lower exhibit relaxation and creep. For example, high-strength steels or special alloy steels known for their good spring performance can be used.
Heat treatment:
The properties of the spring material can be optimized through targeted heat treatments. Such treatment can reduce relaxation and creep. For example, stress relieving can improve the internal stress state of the material and reduce relaxation.
Spring Construction:
The design of the feather itself can have an impact on the effects. A careful design of the spring geometry, such as choosing the right wire gauge, coil count and spring pitch, can help minimize the effects.
Surface treatment:
A special surface treatment such as coating or finishing the spring material can reduce friction and wear. This can help reduce hysteresis and increase spring life.
Temperature control:
The operating temperature can have a significant impact on the effects. If possible, temperature control can be a way to reduce the effects of relaxation, creep and hysteresis. This can be achieved through the use of heat protection measures or targeted cooling.

Compression springs with different force-displacement curves - three common curve types:

Linear gradient:
With a linear compression spring or linear force-displacement curve, the spring force increases evenly over the entire spring travel. These compression springs are referred to as cylinder compression springs or cylindrical compression springs. These springs have a constant rate of spring force regardless of the amount of compression. A linear force-displacement curve is used in many applications where a consistent and predictable spring force is required, such as in mechanical assemblies or tools.
Progressive gradient:
With a progressive compression spring or progressive force-displacement curve, the spring force increases more with increasing spring travel than with a linear curve. These compression springs are referred to as barrel compression springs, barrel springs or barrel-shaped compression springs. This means that the spring force does not increase linearly, but rather with increasing compression of the spring travel. This progression is achieved by a special wire winding in which the coils get closer together the more the spring is compressed. Progressive springs provide increasing resistance with increased loading and are often used in applications Where increased suspension or increased load capacity is required, e.g. in vehicle chassis components or in industrial machinery.
Declining gradient:
With a degressive compression spring or degressive force-displacement curve, the spring force decreases more with increasing spring travel than with a linear curve. These compression springs are referred to as cone compression springs, cone springs or conical compression springs. This progression is achieved through a special wire winding or through changes in the spring geometry. Degressive springs are often used in applications where soft springing or compliance under low loads is required.

These three curve types are the most common variants for cylindrical compression springs with a non-linear force-displacement curve. The selection of the right course depends on the specific requirements of the application, such as the desired spring force, the compression range and the desired handling. It is important to carefully analyze the technical requirements and if necessary to develop a tailor-made spring in order to achieve the desired force-displacement curve.

With compression springs, the spring wire is subjected to torsion.
The strength of compression springs is calculated using the analytical torsion equations for wire.
Here, the G-modulus is an important material property. In addition, compression springs are usually designed for fatigue strength. Fatigue strength diagrams for torsion of the spring material or spring wire are of crucial importance.

Compression springs: small springs with maximum effect
Compression springs are probably the most popular form of technical springs.
Everybody knows her. Compression springs are known primarily for their use in ballpoint pens.
Compression springs are used in almost all industrial areas and in all sizes.
What initially gives the impression that they are a "simple" component turns out to be the case during development often a demanding task. Reiner Schmid Productions GmbH specializes in the manufacture of high-quality compression springs specializes and offers you a large selection of different sizes and designs in this area. When manufacturing the compression springs, we follow your wishes, so that the production of individual springs is possible for you.

Various possibilities
The possibilities of the compression springs can also be varied.
In the standard variant, compression springs consist of a cylindrical spring body with a spring wire of a certain wire thickness.
The spring body has a length (L0) and a certain diameter (Di, Da). The number of turns is mostly defined with "total" (nt or ig) and "springy" (n or if) where: nt = n +2. Have in the standard variant Compression springs have one coil at each end, which is not rising, but applied. Most often, compression springs are used on the right manufactured wrapped around. Compression springs with a wire diameter of d = 1.0 are often ground at the spring ends, to create a flat surface.

Grinding compression springs
Like the manufacture of other springs, the production of compression springs consists of several steps. An essential part of the production of compression springs is grinding. However, grinding the spring ends is a cost- and quality-intensive process that is chosen with care. With thinner wire gauges, you can usually do without grinding the spring ends. In addition to them, there are other designs of compression springs.
They include "conical" designs in which the windings do not "block" but rather intertwine when actuated. In addition, compression springs are offered as double-conical or barrel-shaped. Also compression springs with different pitch dimensions in the windings, as well as with several applied areas of the windings in the spring body are used.
In rarer cases, compression springs are also manufactured left-hand wound. We can provide you with all designs.
On request, we can also make custom-made compression springs for you. For the production of compression springs of all types and sizes, we use modern machinery.
This enables us to respond to your own requests. Compression springs, like other technical springs, have to be special be precisely manufactured. In order for this to be possible, we coordinate your wishes in advance with the possibilities. This is how we guarantee optimal results.

compression springs

Different versions of compression springs

Your contact for the production of technical metal springs :
Christian Neumann
Phone: 0212 / 3824187-3